A Search Query is entered into a search box from a browser like Google, Edge, Safari, or Firefox. This query is processed by an algorithm that weighs many factors such as the content of a webpage, the trustworthiness of the website, and external factors such as backlinks, social media, news, advertising, etc. Search results from major search engines include many types of enhanced results (organic search, and sponsored) such as rich snippets, images, maps, answer boxes (Q&A's ), videos or suggested search refinements. A study revealed that 95% of queries in Google returned at least one rich feature.
Search Engines use spiders to crawl the internet. The spiders crawl (index) each page they find. We create a sitemap to help them find the pages. The search engines uses an algorithm that weighs several ranking factors to decide which pages to pull from the index and display in the SERP-Search Engine Results Page.